Knouse Main Page |
Genealogy |
Openlands Businesses |
Sustainability |
Athens, Ohio |

Geography |
Science &
Nature |
Miscellanea |
Personal &
Links |
Feedback |

This page has had [an error occurred while processing this directive]

This page was last revised on November 20, 2017.

- Miscellaneous Standards
- Composition of Air
- Metric Multipliers
- Basic Metric Units
- Length
- Area
- Volume
- Mass
- Temperature
- Time
- Elemental Physics
- Chemical Elements
- Biological Empire

Also, if you dare: Heretical Physics: Lunatic ravings of an amateur scientist

- pi: 3.1415926536. . .
- e: 2.718281828
- radian: 57.29578 degrees

**Speed of light in a vacuum (c):**

- 186,291 miles per second

- 299,792,458 meters per second or 3 x 10
^{8}m/s (299.8 megameters per second)

**Speed of sound in Earth's atmosphere:**

- 1,088 feet per second at 0 degrees Celsius, 1 atmosphere
- 331.4 meters per second at 0 degrees Celsius, 1 atmosphere
- 1,126 feet per second at STP
- 343 meters per second at STP

**Standard gravity:**

- 36 feet/second squared

- 9.81 meters/second squared

**STP: standard temperature and pressure**

- standard temperature=20 degrees Celsius, 293.15 degrees Kelvin, or 68 degrees Fahrenheit
- standard pressure=1 atmosphere=101,325 kilograms per meter times seconds squared or 14.696 psi (pounds per square inch)=760 millimeters of mercury (Hg)

**Density of air (at STP):**

- 1.204 kilograms per cubic meter

**Density of water (at STP):**

- 998.23 kilograms per cubic meter (it should be 1,000 exactly except for an early calibration inaccuracy in the metric system)

- 79.0 % nitrogen (N2)
- 20.93% oxygen (O2)
- 0.037% carbon dioxide (CO2): this fraction is increasing
- 0.009% argon (Ar)

femto: one quadrillionth (1,000 billionth European; 10 to the minus 15

pico: one trillionth (one billionth European; 10 to the minus 12

nano: one billionth (1,000 millionth European; 10 to the minus 9

micro: one millionth (10 to the minus 6

milli: one thousandth (10 to the minus 3

centi: one hundredth (10 to the minus 2

deci: one tenth (10 to the minus 1

deka (or deca): ten (10 to the 1

hecto: hundred (10 to the 2

kilo: thousand (10 to the 3

myria (obsolete): ten thousand (10 to the 4

mega: million (10 to the 6

giga: billion (1,000 million European; 10 to the 9

tera: trillion (one billion European; 10 to the 12

peta: quadrillion (1,000 billion European; 10 to the 15

- A liter is about one and one-tenth quarts;

- A kilogram is about two and two-tenths pounds;

- And a meter is about three and three-tenths feet.

length (one dimension): | meter |

area (two dimensions): | are (or square meter/square centimeter) |

volume (three dimensions): | liter |

mass: | kilogram (now the official basis, originally gram) |

temperature: | degrees Celsius or Kelvin |

2.54 cm=1 inch

1 Angstrom=1 x 10 to the minus 10th power meter

39.37 inches=1 meter

1.6 kilometers=1 mile

0.62 mile=1 kilometer

660 feet=1 furlong

16.5 feet=1 rod (or pole)

4 rods=1 chain

66 feet=1 chain

5280 feet=1 mile

3 feet=1 yard

12 inches=1 foot

36 inches=1 yard

1760 yards=1 mile (statute mile)

6 feet=1 fathom

1.151 statute miles=1 nautical mile

**Astronomical Distances:**

- astronomical unit (AU):
- 1.495979 x 10
^{11}meters - parsec (pc):
- 3.086 x 10
^{16}meters - 2.06265 x 10
^{5}AU - 3.262 LY
- light year (LY):
- 9.4605 x 10
^{15}meters - 6.324 x 10
^{4}AU - Quarks: These are the basic building blocks of matter as we know it. There are twelve of them now believed to exist--that is, six varieties, with each having an antimatter partner. Looking at it from another viewpoint, it could be stated that there are actually 36 varieties (more on that in gluons, below) The basic types are: charm, strange, up, down, top, and bottom. These are in partnered pairs; charm and strange go together, as do up and down, and top and bottom. The charm, up, and top quarks correspond as a group with the same spin of 2/3, while the strange, down, and bottom quarks correspond as a group with the same spin of -1/3. By far the most commonly known are the up and down quarks, while the most elusive is the bottom quark.
- Gluons: These are believed to come in eight flavors, corresponding to the color combinations of quarks. As mentioned above, the twelve quarks and anti-quarks can be multiplied by three to a total of 36, because another characteristic of quarks has been assigned, called color. With three colors, there must be six gluons to mediate binding between any combination of pairs: aa, ab, ac, bb, bc. There are believed to be another two. They are called gluons because they "glue" together the quarks.
- Leptons: This is a very particular family of particles, with the same tabular structure as quarks. That is, there are three pairs, with each pair being divided between two classes. The varieties, in pairs, are: electron, electron neutrino, tauon, tau neutrino, muon, and mu neutrino. Electrons are, of course, quite common, while neutrinos can be detected only with excruciating difficulty.
- Gage bosons: These are particles that correspond to the four elemental physical forces: electromagnetism, gravity, weak nuclear force, and strong nuclear force.
- The photon, a massless particle, is well-known to be the mediator of electromagnetism, which is radiation through space, wholly distinct from electricity, which is a function through matter of electrons. The electromagnetic spectrum travels through the absolute vacuum of space, whereas sound waves do not. The electromagnetic spectrum as we know it ranges from radiation with a very high frequency, high energy levels, and short wavelength at one end, going to low frequency, low energy, and long wavelength at the other. From the short end, they are: 1) cosmic rays, 2) gamma rays, 3) x-rays, 4) ultraviolet, 5) optical spectrum, from violet to red, 6) near infrared, 7) mid-infrared, 8) far infrared, 9) heat radiation, 10) microwaves, 11) radio and television waves. At the beginning end, there may be many millions of waves within any one pixel on this page, while at the broadcast wave end, the waves may a city block long or longer (this is VLF, very low frequency!). Photons have long been known to act both like waves and like particles. The spectrum seen by the human eye has everything to do with the size of the eye and of the light-sensitive cells in the retina.
- Higgs-boson particles are thought to mediate the weak nuclear force. These are X+, X-, and Z0. They are massive particles, and are actually mesons.
- Gluons, already discussed, are believed to mediate the strong nuclear force.
- No gage particles have ever been detected for gravity. There are theoretical particles, such as the graviton, or even gravitino, but these have never been shown to actually exist. Obviously, something must produce the force of gravity, but it's a tough nut to crack!
- Baryons: These include protons and neutrons. There are many, many other baryons, but the proton and neutron are the only ones known to commonly occur in normal space-time. Baryons are made up of a combination of quarks, three quarks to a boson, held together with gluons. The quarks in baryons are all normal (positive) matter. However, recent evidence has indicated that quarks are zipping through a boson constantly, but there is always the triad in addition to the other quarks, which both appear and annihilate as pairs.
- Mesons: There are many of these, as well, but are generally only transient in reactions. Mesons are also made up of a combination of quarks, but in this case are composed of one normal quark and one anti-quark.
- Phylum: Coelenterata
- Phylum: Mollusca
- Class: Bivalvia: clams, oysters, mussels, scallops
- Class: Cephalopoda: octopus, squid, cuttlefish
- Class: Gastropoda: Conchs, whelks, snails and slugs
- Class: Nautilidae: nautilus and ammonites
- Phylum: Arthropoda (not all classes included)
- Class: Crustacea: shrimp, lobster, crab, crayfish, isopods
- Class: Arachnida: spiders, ticks, mites
- Class: Insecta: insects
- Phylum: Chordata
- Class: Pisces
- Fish
- Class: Amphibia
- Order: Salamandrales
- Newts, mudpuppies, hellbenders, other salamanders
- Order: Ranales
- Frogs, tree frogs, and toads
- Class: Reptilia (the evolutionary division between these two orders probably justifies their being placed in separate classes)
- Order: Testudines
- Turtles and tortoises
- Order: Serpentia
- Snakes and lizards
- Class: Dinosauria
- Subclass: Dinosauria
- Dinosaurs
- Subclass: Crocodilia
- Crocodiles, alligators, caymans, gavials
- Subclass: Aves
- Birds: raptors, songbirds, vultures, ducks, geese, storks, swans, ibis, gulls, etc.
- Class: Mammalia
- Subclass: Monotremata
- Order: Monotremata
- Platypus and echidnas (Australia)
- Subclass: Marsupialia
- Order: Marsupialia
- Kangaroos, wallabies, koalas, wombats, opossums
- Subclass: Placentae
- Order: Insectivora
- Shrews, moles
- Order: Chiroptera
- Bats
- Order: Primatia
- Lemurs, tarsus, monkeys, apes, humans
- Order: Rodentia
- Mice, rats, beaver, muskrats, guinea pigs, hamsters, voles, naked mole rats, etc.
- Order: Lagomorpha
- Rabbits, hares and pikas (allied with Rodentia, above)
- Order: Carnivora
- Family: Felidae
- Cats: lions, tigers, jaguars, leopards, cheetahs, pumas, ocelots, lynx, bobcats, etc.
- Family: Procyonidae
- Raccoons, coatimundis
- Family: Bassariscidae
- Ringtails (closely allied to the Procyonidae)
- Family: Mustelidae
- Stoats, weasels, ferrets, mink, martens, fishers, badgers, wolverines, otter, sea otters
- Family: Mephitidae
- Skunks (previously included in the Mustelidae and allied to it, but recent genetic research has shown that it should be listed separately)
- Family: Canidae
- Dogs, wolves, foxes, hyenas, jackals, coyotes
- Family: Ursidae
- Bears: black, brown, Kodiak, grizzly, sun, spectacled, polar, panda, etc.
- Order: Pinnipedia
- Seals, sea lions, walruses (very closely allied to carnivora)
- Order: Perissodactyla
- Equidae
- Horses, zebras, donkeys
- Rhinocerotidae
- Rhinoceroses
- Tapiridae
- Tapirs
- Hippopotamidae
- Hippopotamus
- Order: Artiodactyla
- Giraffidae
- Giraffes, okapi
- Camelidae
- Camels (dromedaries, Bactrian), llamas, alpacas, vicunas, guanacos
- Bovidae
- Cattle, oxen, buffalo, bison, antelope, sheep, goats
- Cervidae
- Deer, caribou, elk, moose
- Antilocapridae
- Pronghorn
- Suidae
- Pigs
- Tayassuidae
- Peccaries (closely allied to Suidae, above)
- Order: Proboscidea
- Elephants
- Order Hyracoidea
- Hyrax (allied to elephants, above)
- Order: Sirenia
- Sea cows, manatees, dugongs
- Order: Xenarthra
- Sloths, armadillos
- Order: Tubulidentata
- One species, the Aardvark
- Order: Cetacea
- Whales, porpoises (this order is thought to be allied with the Hippopotamus family; they should probably be placed in the same order)

An astronomical unit is the average distance between the Earth and Sol, the sun. A parsec is a distance based on an object whose parallax is one second of arc (which is 1/60 of a minute, which in turn is 1/60 of a degree, with 360 degrees in the full circle). A light year is the distance that a photon travels in a vacuum in a year's time.

9 square feet=1 square yard

4,640 square yards=1 acre

1550 square inches=1 square meter

10.76 square feet=1 square meter

100 square meters=1 are (10 meters on a side)

100 ares=1 hectare (100 meters on a side)

43,560 square feet=1 acre (approx. 208 feet on a side)

640 acres=1 square mile (5,280 feet on a side)

2.47 acres=1 hectare

3 teaspoons=1 tablespoon

2 tablespoons=1 ounce (liquid)

8 ounces=1 cup

16 ounces=1 pint

32 ounces=1 quart

128 ounces=1 gallon

2 cups=1 pint

4 cups=1 quart

2 pints=1 quart

8 pints=1 gallon

4 quarts=1 gallon

7.8 gallons=1 cubic foot

1 cubic centimeter=1 milliliter (not exactly because of early error in calibration of the metric
system, but VERY close)

1000 liters=1 cubic meter

1 cubic deciliter=1 liter

61,024 cubic inches=1 cubic meter

61 cubic inches=1 liter

264.2 gallons (US)=1 cubic meter

220 gallons (Imperial)=1 cubic meter

1 cubic meter=1 stere

35.3156 cubic feet=1 stere

If you have trouble understanding the distance between mass and weight, envision it like this: mass represents the actual substance or matter that's there, while weight is the effect of gravity on that mass. So a pound of butter only weighs about 2 2/3 ounces on the moon, but a kilogram of butter (mass) is still a kilogram of butter on the moon. When we use kilograms/grams for weight on Earth, it is with the understanding that we have set these quantities at fundamental Earth gravity.

2.205 pounds=1 kilogram

35.274 ounces=1 kilogram

28.4 grams=1 ounce

2000 pounds=1 ton

1000 kilograms=1 tonne (or metric ton)

1.102 tons=1 tonne (or metric ton)

1.8 degrees Fahrenheit=1 degree Celsius (or Kelvin)

Conversion:

(F-32)/1.8=C

1.8C+32=F

K=C+273.15

Zero degrees Celsius is the freezing point of water, and equals 32 degrees Fahrenheit

100 degrees Celsius is the boiling point of water, and equals 212 degrees Fahrenheit

-40 degrees C is exactly equal to -40 degrees F

Zero degrees Kelvin is absolute zero

60 seconds = 1 minute

3600 seconds = 1 hour

60 minutes = 1 hour

86,400 seconds = 1 day

1,440 minutes = 1 day

24 hours = 1 day

604,800 seconds = 1 week

10,080 minute = 1 week

7 days = 1 week

equatorial year = 365.2422 ephemeris days

sidereal year = 365.2564 ephemeris days

sidereal year = 3.155815 x 107 seconds

Elemental, or particle, physics is still very much an area of exploration. Whereas astronomical scales in the universe seem to be ruled by the laws of relativity, and the human macroscopic scale seem to be ruled by Newtonian physics, the subatomic level seems to be ruled by quantum mechanics.

Some of the underlying concepts of quantum mechanics are that 1) energy and some other quanta can be measured in discrete units, like having a bag of candy, which is composed of individual pieces, and it can only be made lighter or heavier by adding or subtracting whole pieces; 2) many of the descriptors on the subatomic level are probabilistic, that is, e.g., the position of an electron at any one time can be only said to be at any particular spot with a calculated probability; 3) that (my own interpretation) scalars based on spatial dimensions cannot be measured concurrently with scalars based on time dimensions. This is from the Heidelberg uncertainty principle, which actually states that we can know a particle's momentum, OR its position, but never both at once.

Having just used the term scalar, let me explain:

Tensors are combinations of linked measurements of particles. Tensors of the first order only measure one characteristic, and are called scalars. Thus, if you're driving to Grandma's, your speed (technically, not velocity) in miles per hour would be a scalar, since only one thing is being measured. Tensors of the second order measure two characteristics, and are called vectors. Thus, the fact that you're going due north in the car, coupled with its speed, is a vector (and is, properly, the car's velocity). When the term tensor is used by itself, it generally means tensors of the third order and above. It's certainly possible in physics to have things like tensors of the seventh order.

Here are the fundamental groups of subatomic particles:

__Kingdom: Virusae__

Viruses are usually not technically considered to be living things, because they cannot perform any function for themselves except cell entry and replication. However, they do contain DNA or RNA or both.

__Kingdom: Archeobacteria__

The Archaeobacteria have only been recently discovered, living around volcanic vents on the deep ocean floor.

__Kingdom: Monera__

The Monera include the bacteria (other than Archaeobacteria) and some "algae".

__Kingdom: Protista__

The Protista include all eukaryotic single-celled organisms. As such, it is cladistically artificial. Included are paramecia and euglenas.

**Kingdom: Plantae**

Go to Kingdom: Plantae

**Kingdom: Fungi**

The Fungi had long been lumped in with plants, but research has demonstrated them to be a separate group, and actually probably more closely related to animals than plants. They include mushrooms, shelf fungi, yeasts, molds, smuts, puffballs.

**Kingdom: Animalia**

This is NOT a comprehensive outline, but only includes some of the most important groups.